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By Dr. Tejas D. Shah, Ophthalmology

The retina is a layer made of tissue that is located behind the eye. This layer is responsible for sensing light and for sending images to the brain. The macula, located at the centre of the nerve tissue provides the essential sharp and central vision that is required for driving, reading and seeing fine details.

Disorders in the retina affects this vital tissue. Your vision can be affected and in some serious cases, it might lead to blindness. Some of the serious retinal disorders are discussed below:

1. Macular Degeneration:It is one of the most common disorders of the eye and is associated with aging. It causes visual impairment that is irreversible among people over the age of 60.It consists of two types-Neovascular (Wet Macular Degeneration) and Dry Macular Degeneration.

2. Retinal Vein Occlusion:This is an obstruction or blockage that occurs in the veins present in the retina. It occurs in two forms:

i. Central Retinal Vein Occlusions (CRVO): Main vein in retina is blocked resulting in reduced blood supply to the entire retina.

ii. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions (BRVO): Branch of the main retinal vein is blocked resulting in reduced blood flow in a specific region of the retina. It is not as severe as CRVO

3. Diabetic Retinopathy:This is a potential blinding complication caused due to diabetes. Early symptoms are subtle and worsens with passing time. Its two types are:

i. Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Occurs when smaller blood vessels in the retina are harmed by diabetes and results in leakage of blood.

ii. Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Fragile blood vessels emerge in the retinal region and in the gel-like vitreous which is present in the inside of the eye