Cardiovascular Diseases-Causes, symptoms, Treatment

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By Dr. S.K.Tandon , General Physician

The heart is like any other muscle in body. It needs an adequate blood supply to provide oxygen to allow the muscle to contract and pump. Not only does the heart pump blood to the rest of the body, it also pumps blood to itself via the coronary arteries. These arteries originate from the base of the aorta (the major blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart) and then branch out along the surface of the heart.

When one or more coronary arteries narrow, it may make it difficult for adequate blood to reach the heart, especially during exercise. This can cause the heart muscle to ache like any other muscle in the body. Should the arteries continue to narrow, it may take less activity to stress the heart and provoke symptoms. The classic symptoms of chest pain or pressure and shortness of breath due to cardiovascular or coronary artery disease are called angina.

Some of the common CVDs are:

  1. Atherosclerosis: It is caused when plaque builds up on the walls of the arteries, causing the walls of the arteries to narrow down, thus making it difficult for the blood to flow throw them.
  2. Ischemic stroke: This can occur when the blood vessels that are connected to the brain, get blocked. This hampers the normal functioning of the brain, resulting in the death of brain cells and tissues. When this happens, basic body functions such as talking, walking or eating can be a cause of concern.
  3. Heart Failure: When the heart does not pump sufficient amount of blood that it should, it is termed as heart failure. Heart failure, if not treated immediately, can cause fatal complications.
  4. Heart Valve Problems: There are different types of heart valve problems. One of them is ‘stenosis’, wherein the heart valves do not open adequately for the blood to flow through them. On the other hand, when the heart valves do not close properly, resulting in leakage of blood, it is called ‘regurgitation’.


  1. High blood pressure
  2. Obesity
  3. High blood sugar level
  4. Family history of heart diseases and complications
  5. A sedentary lifestyle
  6. Excessive alcohol consumption or smoking


  1. Pain in the arms, back, chest and either side of the face
  2. Fatigue
  3. Shortness of breath
  4. Weakness
  5. Nausea
  6. Indigestion
  7. Excessive sweating


The treatment process for coronary heart diseases (CHD) is the same across both the genders. This will include making certain lifestyle modifications and changes, medications, surgery and other medical procedures as well as cardiac rehabilitation. Please check your lipid profile IN FASTING STAGE REGULARLY 3-6 MONTH. The primary goal of this is to relieve the associated symptoms and ease the general discomfort of the patient.